- NOVOSTI I DOGAĐAJI
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|Turbidity Range||>10 NTU (bis zu 999 NTU)||<10 NTU|
Raw influent water
Clarifier effluentFilter backwash water
Combined filter effluent
pH is another important parameter to measure and control in a drinking water facility. pH directly impacts the degree of coagulation and flocculation that remove total organic carbon from raw inlet water. pH also affects the disinfecting power of chlorine and therefore must be kept in a very narrow range (7.0-7.8 pH) during and after the disinfection process; this range maximises the effectiveness of the disinfectant (which is less effective in pH > 7.8) while minimising corrosion of systems
caused by low pH (< 7.0).
Disinfection with chlorine is often a preferred method to kill pathogens in drinking water. When chlorine is added to water, it forms hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which is a very strong disinfectant. This acid further dissociates to hydrogen and hypochlorite ions (H+ and OCl-), a significantly weaker disinfectant. The percentage of hypochlorous acid is higher in acidic environment (pH<7.5) and lower in basic environment (pH>7.5). Therefore, the same amount of chlorine added will have different
disinfecting power based on the pH of the water. This balance is further affected by temperature.
This sensitive balance of chlorine chemistry in water can create various challenges for drinking water plants that want to make sure they have added enough chlorine to ensure water safety, but not too much to affect water taste or increase the chance of chlorine reacting with natural organic matter to form cancerogenic disinfection byproducts.
There are two main methods for measuring chlorine levels in water, and choosing the right one for your application depends on various factors
Ideal for process control with fast reaction to chlorineconcentration change.
|High accuracy without calibration.|
|Best suited for||Stable pH, temperature and flow.||Any application with changing sample
characteristic (pH, temperature, flow).
and main features
|Sensor specificity to HOCl.
No sanitary drain required
9184 sc Total Free Chlorine (TFC) amperometric analyser
|Not affected by process changes and no calibration required.
Low maintenance cost thanks to 30 day unattended run time
CL17 Analyser for total chlorine
|Eliminates need for external
buffer. Optional pH probe.
No sanitary drain required
CLF10 sc Free chlorine analyser, pHD sensor, metric
Nitrates are usually found in high concentrations in ground water, especially when activities near the well can potentially contaminate the water supply. Nitrates are also found in surface water
when nitrate fertilisers are leached during excessive rainfalls.
Sludge thickening reduces the volume collected from the clarifier and sludge, dewatering the weight by centrifugation or filtration. Both of these processes can be optmised using online turbidimeters that measure suspended solids.